dinsdag, september 29, 2009

383. Brits gezondheidsonderzoek: Kinderen van werkende moeders zijn ongezonder en hebben een ongezondere leefstijl

Hieronder opgenomen artikelen over dit onderwerp:

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Kroost werkende moeders ongezonder

Telegraaf - Buitenland -. di 29 sep 2009, 08:13 | 119 reacties
http://www.telegraaf.nl/buitenland/4945810/__Dik_door_werkende_moeder__.html?p=25,1

AMSTERDAM - Kinderen van werkende moeders leven een stuk ongezonder dan het kroost van thuisblijvende mama's.

 

Dat blijkt uit nieuw Brits onderzoek. Zo hangen kinderen van werkende moeders vaker voor de televisie, ze eten meer junkfood en bewegen minder.


Kinderen van thuisblijvende mama's eten beter en bewegen meer, zeggen de onderzoekers. Het verschil wordt kleiner als moeders alleen parttime werken.


De onderzoekers benadrukken dat ze niet willen dat vrouwen stoppen met werken, maar willen gezinnen er wel bewust van maken dat de ongezonde leefstijl veel te maken heeft met tijdgebrek.


Het onderzoek werd gehouden onder 12.500 Britse schoolkinderen.



Children of working mothers have unhealthier lifestyles
UK Institute of Child Health - 29 September 2009
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0909/09092903


Children whose mothers go out to work have poorer dietary habits than children’s whose mothers are not in paid employment, according to a new UCL study.




The children furthermore are more sedentary, and are more likely to be driven to school than children whose mothers do not work outside the home, according to research published today by Professor Catherine Law (UCL Institute of Child Health) in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.






The researchers' findings are based on more than 12,500 five-year-old singleton children – those who were not part of a multiple birth – who were part of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.





The mothers reported on the hours they worked and their children’s usual dietary habits, exercise levels, and sedentary activities. Questions included how much sweets and crisps, sweetened drinks, fruits and vegetables the child consumed, whether they took part in organised exercise, and how they got to school. Mothers were also asked how long their child used a computer or TV each day.



After taking account of factors likely to influence the results, such as maternal education and socioeconomic circumstances, the findings showed that children whose mothers worked part- or full-time were more likely to drink sweetened drinks between meals than children whose mothers had never worked. These children were also more likely to spend at least two hours a day in front of the TV or at a computer, and they were more likely to be driven to school rather than walk or cycle. Children whose mothers worked full time were also less likely to snack on fruit or vegetables between meals, or to eat three or more portions of fruit a day.

Children whose mothers worked flexi-time were more likely to have healthier lifestyles, but once other influential factors had been taken into account, there was little evidence that these children engaged in healthier behaviours.



While the work patterns of fathers have changed relatively little in recent decades, those of mothers have, with around 60% of mothers with children under five in the UK and the US now going out to work, say the authors. Busy working parents may have less time to provide their children with healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity, say the authors, who cite previous research, suggesting a link between working mothers and a higher risk of obesity in their children.


“Our results do not imply that mother should not work,” says author Professor Catherine Law. “Rather, they highlight the need for policies and programmes to help support parents...to create a healthy environment for their children. They suggest that dietary guidelines for children in formal childcare, similar to those already adopted in Scotland might be applied in England, for example.”




Links:
 


    Examining the relationship between maternal employment and health behaviours in 5-year-old British children
    Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - Hawkins et al., doi:10.1136/jech.2008.084590 - 29 September 2009
    http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/jech.2008.084590v1?q=w_jech_ahead_tab


    RESEARCH REPORTS

    Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Tim J Cole, Catherine Law*

    UCL Institute of Child Health, United Kingdom

    Correspondence to: C M Law, Institute of Child Health, University College London, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford St, London, WCIN 1EH, United Kingdom; c.law@ich.ucl.ac.uk

    Accepted 29 April 2009

    Background: There is little known about potential mechanisms underlying the association between maternal employment and childhood obesity. We examined the relationships between maternal hours worked per week (none, 1-20 hours, 21+ hours) and children's dietary and physical activity/inactivity habits. Where mothers were employed, we also examined the relationships between flexible work arrangements and these health behaviours.

    Methods: We analysed data from 12 576 singleton children age five years in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Mothers reported information about their employment patterns. Mothers also reported on indicators of their child’s dietary (crisps/sweets, fruit/vegetables, sweetened beverage, fruit consumption), physical activity (participation in organised exercise, transport to school), and inactivity (television/computer use) habits at age five.

    Results: After adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors, children whose mothers worked part-time or full-time were more likely to primarily drink sweetened beverages between meals (compared to other beverages), use the television/computer at least two hours daily (compared to 0-2), or be driven to school (compared to walk/cycle) than children whose mothers had never been employed. Children whose mothers worked full-time were less likely to primarily eat fruit/vegetables between meals (compared to other snacks) or eat three or more portions of fruit daily (compared to two or fewer). Although in unadjusted analyses children whose mothers used flexible work arrangements engaged in healthier behaviours, relationships were no longer significant after adjustment.

    Conclusions: For many families the only parent or both parents are working. This may limit parents’ capacity to provide their children with healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. Policies and programmes are needed to help support parents and create a health promoting environment.

    · Full Text (Rapid PDF)



    Working mothers' children unfit
    UK | BBC NEWS | Health | Monday, 28 September 2009
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8278742.stm




    About 60% of women with children aged five or younger are working
    Children whose mothers work are less likely to lead healthy lives than those with "stay at home" mothers, a study says.

    The Institute of Child Health study of more than 12,500 five-year-olds found those with working mothers less active and more likely to eat unhealthy food.

    Other experts said more work was needed to see if the results applied to other age groups.

    The study is in the Journal of Epidemiology and Child Health.

    About 60% of mothers with children aged up to five are estimated to be in work.

    Results
    The mothers were asked about the hours they worked and their children's diet, exercise levels and sedentary activities.
    With many more mums having no choice but to work these days and with government policy actively encouraging it, it is difficult to know how mums can do better
    Sally Russell, Netmums

    Send us your comments
    A third of the mothers had not worked since the birth of their child, but the mothers who were employed were spending an average of 21 hours a week at work.

    They took into account factors likely to influence the results, such as the mothers' level of education and socioeconomic circumstances.

    They found that five-year-olds whose mothers worked part-time or full-time were more likely to primarily consume sweetened drinks between meals.

    They used their computers or watched television for at least two hours a day compared to the children of "stay at home" mothers who spent less than two hours on these activities.

    They were also more likely to be driven to school compared to the children of "stay at home" mothers who tended to walk or cycle.

    The children whose mothers had a flexible working pattern did have healthier lifestyles but when other factors were taken into account the researchers said there was little evidence that these children behaved more healthily.

    'Time constraints'
    Debbie Bird: "'Being a working mum is very challenging"

    Professor Catherine Law, who led the study said: "For many families the only parent or both parents will be working.

    "Time constraints may limit parents' capacity to provide their children with healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity.

    "Our results do not imply that mothers should not work.

    "Rather they highlight the need for policies and programmes to help support parents."

    The same children took part in an earlier study by the Institute of Child Health (ICH) which found that those with working mothers were more likely to be obese or overweight by the age of three.

    In the latest study, many of the five-year-olds were engaging in health behaviours likely to promote excess weight gain: 37% were mainly eating crisps and sweets between meals, 41% were consuming sweetened drinks and 61% used the television or a computer at least two hours daily.

    'Controversial research'
    Glenys Jones, nutritionist with the Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, said the study was interesting because of limited research so far on the impact of maternal employment on child health choices.

    FROM THE TODAY PROGRAMME

    More from Today programme
    "More work is needed to take into account factors such as how related health behaviours are affected and if the age of the child alters the relationships observed."

    Sally Russell, a spokesman for Netmums, said: "The stress and guilt associated with being a working mum is something we are all too well aware of. This report adds to that guilt.

    "With many more mums having no choice but to work these days and with government policy actively encouraging it, it is difficult to know how mums can do better. "

    A Department of Health spokesman said: "Our Change4Life movement is already helping over 370,000 families eat well, move more and live longer by helping them to understand the harm that fat and added sugar can cause to children's health, and offering them simple yet effective ways to make changes to their diet and increase their activity levels."

    SEE ALSO

    RELATED INTERNET LINKS

    BBC website readers have been sending in their comments on this story. Here is a selection of their thoughts and experiences. Join in the debate

    I was a lone parent working mum. My son is now 25 and for about half his time at school I worked full time. He always walked to school and ate healthily. He is very fit and a perfect weight for his height. I guess he is pretty typical.
    Eva McDiarmid, Glasgow, UK


    Damned if we do, damned if we don't. Never mind the fact that most of us don't have the luxury of choice in the matter. Thanks for reporting this so widely and making my commute to work just a little bit more rubbish today, BBC.
    Debbie Newton, Leeds, UK


    I'm cross on so many levels, but mainly a personal one! I work, my husband doesn't, he is our daughter's main carer. He walks her to school, he looks after her after school stuff and cooks her meals every day. She has restricted TV time and is not allowed sweets. Why do people insist on saying 'mother' when they often mean 'parent'. It's wrong on other levels too of course, but for me it's the stupidity of assuming a mum should stay at home and a dad should work - are we still in the 50s?
    Naomi, Sussex, UK


    As a lone mum to one daughter, I work full time because I cannot manage financially any other way. I feel like I'm damned if I do and I'm damned if I don't. I get encouraged to work over 30 hours a week and get a financial incentive for doing this through tax credits, but I feel like I am also heavily criticised for not being a 'proper' mum by not spending enough time with my daughter. I leave the house at 8am every day, get home at 5.30pm every day, my daughter goes to bed at 7pm. I'd love to know where I'm supposed to shoehorn in some quality time with my girl!
    Jane Crabtree, Middlesbrough, UK


    This does make me feel even more guilty for working. Being in full-time work and handing over my three year old to childcare is bad enough, and then having to spend a lot of time during the evenings and weekends doing 'house stuff' really doesn't leave me much time to spend with him, doing the things we want to do. I almost wish we could go back to the days when the mother was expected to stay at home, and the father provide. Sadly, this isn't financially possible in my case.
    Hannah Steward, Oldbury, UK


    Well this story is of no surprise. But why should it be mothers who stay at home? Surely in these days of equality fathers should be discussed as well. My wife and I decided one of us would be at home to bring up the children ourselves. We based our decision about who would stay home on earning power. I hear many parents say they can't afford to not work yet they will lavish money on unnecessary extras. It's often about priority not ability. Too many children these days are treated like 'hobby children'.
    N Bair, Glossop, UK


    I can't win. I don't want to work, I want to look after my family and ensure my kids have a good life. But unlike the many teen parents, I was pregnant at 16 and I married the father of my kids. We purchased a house when I was 18 and we work hard to pay our mortgage. I see this as what all parents should do to instil pride in themselves and their children. I don't live off other people's tax, I pay for the lazy people who live off the state. If a mother or father stays at home because their income allows them to then I feel this is the dream for all parents and this is very lucky.
    Catrina Stephens, Trowbridge, UK


    'Being a working mum is challenging' (Videolink)
    UK | BBC NEWS | Health | Tuesday, 29 September 2009
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8279845.stm

    The children of working mothers are more likely to have unhealthy habits than those of women who do not work according to new research.

    The Institute of Child Health study of more than 12,500 five-year-olds found those with working mothers less active and more likely to eat unhealthy food.

    Researchers say their findings do not mean mothers should stay at home but more advice and support may be needed.

    Debbie Bird from Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire is a working mother. She describes her lifestyle and says ''being a working mum is very challenging''.

    READ MORE: Working mums' children 'less fit'



    Does working harm your children? (Radiolink)
    UK | BBC - Today Programme - Tuesday, 29 September 2009
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_8279000/8279887.stm




    Children whose mothers work are less likely to lead healthy lives than those with "stay at home" mums, a study says.


    Professor Catherine Law, from the Institute of Child Health at University College London, has done the research. She said the findings cut across social status.




    "We were able to take into account other factors which might influence diet and physical activity, such as whether a family had a very well educated mother and father or whether they hadn't had the benefit of such education", she said.


    "But these findings were independent of that and in particular it didn't seem to be dependent on income, so going out to work might lead to better opportunities because of increased income, but that didn't seem to be the case in this study."

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